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Curtin, ‘Medical training and you will metropolitan think into the warm Africa’, AHR, 90, step three (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical training and you will metropolitan think into the warm Africa’, AHR, 90, step three (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (step one9step one4), step 140-step one

96 AOM, AP648, Decree toward creation of a Commune on Brazzaville, 5 Oct 1911; speech off Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Yearly declaration out of Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 dutch dating app Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty-six. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Bien au Congo, 121. a hundred Colonel Moll, Une dme de- colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De Bordeaux bien au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step 32-step 3, step 3 8 ^ 0 . 101 To have urban frameworks into the colonial Africa, discover, Philip D. Betts, Unsure proportions: western overseas empires regarding twentieth century (Minneapolis: University regarding Minnesota Push, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion en ce qui concerne l’architecture europeenne ce much time de los angeles cote africaine an effective partir de l’exemple de- la Guinee’, in Almeida-Topor and you will Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes en ce qui concerne VAfrique, 81-92; and Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition on solution regarding modernity: frameworks and urbanism during the French colonial coverage, 1900-1930’, Log of modern History, 59 (June 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 On background and you may dependence on the new Fourteenth out of July in the Brazzaville, see Phyllis M. Martin, ‘National holidays transformed: the fresh fourteenth away from July in Brazzaville’, report exhibited from the 30-seventh annual conference of one’s African Knowledge Association, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport sur los angeles part de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty-six. 106 Speech of Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and you can Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais durante Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The impression of colonialism towards the health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical education and you may metropolitan planning’, 594-seven. 110 Ibid., 598-609; along with Headrick, ‘The impact of colonialism into the health’, 1cuatro3-4, 801-2. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport sur los angeles part de Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Ce Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la region de- Brazzaville’; also AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Officer to Administrator-Standard during the Libreville, 13 July 1901. 116 Cited from inside the Headrick, ‘The feeling regarding colonialism to the health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 May 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Yearly reports ‘Oeuvres de- la Sainte-Enfance’, 24 Oct 1901,step one January 1903,ten November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue are a mention of manioc cash. 120 AOM, TP152, initially show, Purpose Fillon, Declaration of Yards. Henri towards Brazzaville team, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine.

Fehderau, The foundation and you may growth of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) suggests that Kituba is actually a language of the slave trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Goal Log, 29 Could possibly get 1908; R. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine. 124 Come across, eg, J.-P. Chretien and you will G. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The production of tribalism into the southern area Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Grey, Modernization and you can cultural name: the manufacture of national space within the rural France and colonial area during the rural Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana College Focus on Worldwide Changes and you will Community Peace, 1994); Terence Ranger, New creativity out of traditions during the colonial Africa’, within the Hobsbawm and you may Ranger (eds.), This new innovation away from tradition, 211-62, he possess modified since the creativity off tradition revisited: possible off colonial Africa’, for the Terence Ranger and you may Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Validity and the state for the 20th millennium Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. Regarding the up-date regarding his article, Ranger could have been swayed, and others, of the Benedict Anderson, Dreamed teams: reflections on sources and you can spread of nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, Brand new sources of Kituba and you may Lingala’, Log of African Dialects and you can Linguistics, several, step one (September 1991), 47-77, means that their diffusion try a great deal more connected with international rail pros throughout the straight down Congo. 126 ASMF, E l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren so you’re able to SMF, 18 October 1911; B and Age. zero. 1, Korr., Lindgren in order to SMF, 11 November 1911; F. zero. step one, Dagbok, 22 February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, G. A great. Hult so you can SMF, eleven January 1918. 127 Message out-of Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Statement from the Pond section, Brazzaville, Get 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y an excellent-t-il des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The roots away from Kituba and you may Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and you will ‘Bondjo ethnicity and colonial imagination’, Canadian Record regarding African Studies, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, twenty five (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Purpose Record, 31 May 1908,25 September 1910,1 December 1913. 131 Look for sections step 3 and you will cuatro. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, twenty seven (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees bien au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), 50, 72-step 3,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 31, 31. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management statement, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban room, industrial day, and you may salary labor in the Africa’, inside the Strive on the town, 23. dos 1

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